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Grapes and their derivatives have antioxidant and cardioprotective properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that grape juice (GJ) could improve vascular oxidative damage caused by chlorine radicals (OCl−), which are excessively produced in vascular tissue during cardiovascular diseases (mainly diabetes and hypertension). The antioxidant capacity of GJ was analyzed by an electrochemical method, followed by administration in rats (100 or 300 mg/kg/d, via the oral) for seven days. Then, rats were sacrificed, and their aortas were isolated and subjected to isometric recordings or immunohistochemical analyses with or without exposure to OCl− (5, 20, or 100 μM, 60 min). Concentration-effect curves for acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) were derived to analyze endothelium-dependent or independent vasorelaxation. The GJ presented with high antioxidant capacity, and treatment with GJ did not alter vascular relaxation induced by ACh or SNP. After exposure to OCl−, endothelium-denuded arteries showed preserved relaxation with SNP, whereas endothelium-intact arteries showed reduced relaxation with ACh. OCl− at various concentrations induced significantly decreased relaxation of arteries (80.6±4.2%, 55.4±4.7%, and 28.1±5.9%, respectively) vs. control arteries (96.8±2.4%). However, treatment with GJ prevented loss in relaxation caused by 5 and 20 μM OCl− and improved relaxation after exposure to 100 μM OCl−. Exposure to OCl− induced increased nitrotyrosine immunostaining of endothelial cell layers, which was improved by GJ treatment. Altogether, vascular damage caused by OCl− was prevented by treatment with GJ, and GJ prevented nitrosative stress in these vessels.
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|Publication:||Preventive Nutrition and Food Science|
|Issue:||2022 12 p417-424|
|Author:||Britto Junior J 2021|
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