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The wine industry is extremely vulnerable to climate change given the impact of temperature, water or soil conditions on wine production. Transformation strategies toward more sustainable models would help the industry to overcome the weak points. The present study evaluates the environmental impact of the so-called CO2-alcoholic fermentation processes (CO2-AFP) strategy, a recently developed eco-innovative strategy, which offers a new pathway toward a greener wine-making production with a 16.79% reduction of the carbon footprint considering scopes 1 (direct emissions), 2 (emissions generated directly in the production of electricity), and 3 (indirect emissions embodied in the organizations value chain). This strategy is based on a novel Carbon Dioxide Utilization approach from a biogenic CO2 released by fermentation processes to produce a fully marketable and environmentally friendly chemical product at a global level, i.e., sodium carbonate.
This paper presents the strategy development corresponding to a real case: a medium-size winery and distillery in Spain, where the “CO2-AFP Strategy” has been successfully tested and scaled-up. Detailed and tested carbon capture and utilization schemes are used to evaluate the overall carbon footprint balance (carbon calculation, capture potential, and carbon balance) via an improved hybrid multiregional input-output-lifecycle assessment model (MRIO-LCA). The benefits go beyond the reduction of carbon footprint in the fermentation industry. The application of the “CO2-AFP Strategy” implies a revolution, in terms of Circular Economy, in the sodium carbonate industry, as the symbiotic process between the different stages of the value chain will allow downstream carbon footprint reductions, facilitating a greener sodium carbonate production.
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|Publication:||Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews|
|Author:||Gueddari Aourir A 2022|
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