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Grape pomace (GP) represents a very reliable source of polyphenols because it could be found globally as a remnant of the wine industry. During the winemaking process, two types of GP are generated: red GP and white GP, according to the produced wine, red or white. Grape pomace represents a viable source of polyphenols, mainly flavanols, procyanidins anthocyanins, and resveratrol which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Multiple differences were observed between red and white GP in terms of their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in both in vitro and in vivo studies. Although most studies are focused on the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of red grape pomace, there are still many variables that need to be taken into consideration, as well as extensive study of the white GP. It was observed that in both in vitro and in vivo studies, the GP polyphenols have a direct antioxidant activity by acting as a free radical scavenger or donating a hydrogen atom. It also possesses an indirect antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity by reducing mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF- κβ), and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase subunit beta (Iκκβ) levels or nitrate oxide-4 (NOX4) expression and by increasing the levels of antioxidants enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) glutathione reductase (GRx) and glutathione peroxidase(GPx). Besides these activities, many beneficial effects in ischemic heart diseases were also observed, such as the maintenance of the ventricular function as close as possible to normal, and the prevention of infarcted area extension. In this context, this review intends to present the actual knowledge of grape pomace’s potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity in ischemic heart disease, knowledge gathered from existing in vitro and in vivo studies focused on this.
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|Author:||Bocsan I C 2022|
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