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Black foot disease of grapevines is a significant economic issue for the viticulture industry worldwide. The disease is mainly associated with soil borne pathogen species within the genera Dactylonectria and Ilyonectria. The aim of this study was to determine the pathogenicity of different pathogen propagules, including chlamydospores, conidia and mycelium, to grapevine rootstocks grown in soil. A combination of nine isolates belonging to Dactylonectria and Ilyonectria genera, representative of the fungal species associated with black foot disease in New Zealand were used to inoculate grapevines in a field experiment. In the second experiment, the pathogenicity of the different propagules was assessed in different soil types, clay loam, silt loam and sandy loam soils. In the field experiment, chlamydospores and conidia resulted in higher disease incidence and severity at 0 cm above the grapevine stem base compared with mycelium. At 5 cm above the stem base, chlamydospores caused the greatest disease incidence compared with the other two propagules. Propagule type had no effect on shoot and root dry weights. In the pot experiment, soil type affected disease incidence and severity, with clay loam soil resulting in significantly greater disease incidence and severity than silt loam or sandy loam soils. Disease severity at 0 cm above the stem base was significantly higher with conidial inoculations compared with chlamydospore inoculations irrespective of soil type. Root dry weights were also affected with heavier roots from plants grown in sandy loam compared with silt loam and clay loam soils, however, shoot dry weight was greater in clay loam and sandy loam compared with silt loam soils. The results of the study confirmed that all propagule types were able to infect grapevine rootstocks when planted in inoculated soil and showed that although the pathogens were capable of infecting the rootstocks in all soil types, disease level was higher in the heavier clay loam soil. It is therefore recommended that growers either avoid planting in such soils or apply strategies to improve drainage and soil aeration.
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Due to the complex nature of Ercofid Pure-Liquid and its capability to act on several different wine faults simultaneously, wines can be treated much more precisely and the positive aromas remain unharmed.
|Author:||Probst C M 2022|
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